Contemporary Comic

Marvel comic books are a great way to pass time if you have the time to read through books and books of comic strips. The only problem with our generation is that we have become so enslaved to watching television series that we do not appreciate the essence of reading and expanding our imaginations. We restrict ourselves from developing a great imagination.
Some people who collect comic books have made a whole life out of it. Some people grow up revolving their entire lives around. Some of the most famous comic book heroes that come to mind are Superman, Spiderman, and Batman and of course wonder woman.

1. Superman

Copyright DC Comics
Superman is comic book history. Without Superman, the first big comic book superhero, we might not have had Spider-Man, Batman, and the others. Due to the success of Superman, other comics companies pushed making superheroes and to that, Superman is owed a huge debt. Decades later, Superman is still going strong, with a movie in the works, multiple titles to choose from, and a hit TV show. The Man of Steel is certainly on top in terms of historical importance, abilities, and current popularity.

2. Spider-Man

Copyright Marvel Comics
What Spider-Man lacked in ability, he made up in heart. The wall-crawler is one of the first of many true to life superheroes and because of this, Spider-Man has become loved and adored by fans the world over. Spider-Man is Marvel comic’s number one superhero, with legions of fans, blockbuster films, and many hot comics to read.

3. Batman

Copyright DC Comics
There is something about the dark brooding sense of Batman that intrigues people. Or maybe its Batman’s alter-ego, millionaire Bruce Wayne, that people wishes they had more in common with. Maybe the reason so many people identify with him is that Batman has no truly supernatural powers. Any one of us could be Batman Whatever the case, Batman has struck a chord with fans around the world. The Dark Knight is hugely popular with a multiple hit movies and many different comic titles to choose from.
Taking a shift away from comic books towards what every comic book has gone towards is television shows.
Contemporary television show
Gossip Girl is an American teen drama television series based on the book series of the same name written by Cecily von Ziegesar. The series was created by Josh Schwartz and Stephanie Savage, and premiered on The CW on September 19, 2007. Narrated by the omniscient blogger Gossip Girl, voiced by Kristen Bell, the series revolves around the lives of privileged young adults on Manhattan’s Upper East Side in New York City.
The actors and actresses in the series Gossip Girl are Blake Lively, Leighton Meester, Ed Westwick, who plays the role of Chuck Bass, Chase Crawford, Penn Badgely, Jessica Szhor and Taylor Momsen
Gossip Girl has won 18 nominations at the Teens Choice Awards.
This series presents the ideal life which every other teenager wishes to live. To have the money, the fame and everything else in between such as love, true love


Contemporary Music Video

Music is most definitely seen as the universal language because everyone can relate to it. The description of what music is differs from person to person because each person experiences things in a different manner to what the next person would. But the current sounds on the music scene which is making waves have become so different to what it initially was decades ago. People use to create music which was referred to as “soul music”. Nowadays we are faced with music which promotes sex, drugs, gangs, violence and this makes it ok for teenagers to accept these things.
Music plays an important role in the socialization of children and adolescents. Popular music is present almost everywhere, and it is easily available through the radio, various recordings, the Internet, and new technologies, allowing adolescents to hear it in diverse settings and situations, alone or shared with friends. Parents often are unaware of the lyrics to which their children are listening because of the increasing use of downloaded music and headphones. Research on popular music has explored its effects on schoolwork, social interactions, mood and affect, and particularly behavior. The effect that popular music has on children’s and adolescents’ behavior and emotions is of paramount concern.
As with popular music, the perception and the effect of music-video messages are important, because research has reported that exposure to violence, sexual messages, sexual stereotypes, and use of substances of abuse in music videos might produce significant changes in behaviors and attitudes of young viewers.
Female adolescents are more likely than male adolescents to use music to reflect their emotional state, in particular when feeling lonely or “down.” Male adolescents, on the other hand, are more likely to use music as a stimulant, as a way to “boost” their energy level, or to create a more positive image of themselves.
Research on popular music has explored several areas such as its effects on schoolwork, social interactions, mood and affect, and particularly behavior. Several theories have been developed to explain the relationship between music and behavior, and a number of studies have demonstrated that there is a relationship between music and emotions, regardless of age.
In refuting concerns about the effect of lyrics, some have argued that children and adolescents use music only for entertainment, that little or no attention is paid to the words, and if any attention is given, understanding tends to be limited and related to the experiences lived by the listener.

The American Academy of Pediatrics understands that, given the findings presented and our knowledge of child and adolescent development, pediatricians and parents should be aware of this information. Furthermore, with the evidence portrayed in these studies, it is essential for pediatricians and parents to take a stand regarding this issue. Therefore, the following recommendations are made.
1. Pediatricians should become familiar with the role of music in the lives of children and adolescents and identify music preferences of their patients as clues to emotional conflict or problems.
2. Pediatricians should become familiar with the literature available on the effects of music and music videos on children and adolescents.
3. Pediatricians should explore with patients and their parents what types of music they listen to and music videos they watch and under which circumstances they consume these media.
4. Pediatricians should encourage parents to take an active role in monitoring the type of music to which their children and adolescents are exposed and to be aware of the music they purchase. Parents can find lyrics by typing “music lyrics” into an Internet search engine and accessing 1 or more of the Web sites that appear. Pediatricians also should counsel parents and caregivers to monitor and regulate television-viewing according to the age and maturity of their children and adolescents.
5. Pediatricians should encourage parents and caregivers to become media literate.
6. Pediatricians should sponsor and participate in local and national coalitions to discuss the effects of music on children and adolescents to make the public and parents aware of sexually explicit, drug-oriented, or violent lyrics on CDs and cassettes, in music videos, on the Internet, and in emerging technologies.
7. The public and parents in particular, should be aware of and use the music industry’s parental advisory warning of explicit content. The advisory label is a black-and-white logo and should be located on the front of the CD, cassette, album, videocassette, or DVD. It may help protect children from certain offensive materials.
8. Performers should serve as positive role models for children and teenagers.
9. The music-video industry should produce videos with more positive themes about relationships, racial harmony, drug avoidance, nonviolent conflict resolution, sexual abstinence, pregnancy prevention, and avoidance of promiscuity.
10. Further research on the effects of popular music, lyrics, and music videos on children and adolescents is important and should be conducted.

Contemporary Film

Some girls love chick flicks some don’t but that’s just the way it is. Some people may prefer to watch action movies to chick flicks or horror movies. Some of the new and happening films which have yet to hit the scene create
2011 marked the lowest attendance in theaters in 16 years, but studios are hoping 2012’s big movies will revive our interest in actually going to a theater to see a feature film rather than waiting for it to be released on home video. Superheroes, brave teens battling to the death, the rebirth of a few classics, and not one but two films involving Abraham Lincoln are all among the most anticipated releases of 2012.

Here are the 2012 films with the most pre-release buzz (listed in release date order).
‘The Hunger Games’
Starring: Jennifer Lawrence, Liam Hemsworth, and Josh Hutcherson

The Buzz: Lions gate’s not known for backing major theatrical franchises, but the studio’s hoping it’s got another Twilight or Harry Potter on its hands with The Hunger Games. The first film of the planned four-part series (based on a trilogy of books by Suzanne Collins) introduces audiences to the world of teens fighting to the death as representatives of their districts. The Hunger Games books appeal to the same demographic as that of Stephanie Meyer’s sparkling vampire stories and, like Twilight, there are ‘teams’ formed supporting the two lead male characters/love interests. But that’s where the similarities end, as The Hunger Games is much darker than Twilight ever dreamed of being.

Release Date: March 23, 2012

Starring: Robert Downey Jr, Chris Evans, Chris Hemsworth, Mark Ruffalo, Jeremy Renner, and Scarlett Johansson

The Buzz: Disney takes over as the distributor of the Marvel films with The Avengers, the biggest superhero film of 2012 (‘biggest’ due solely to the amount of costumed comic book characters stuffed into one movie). Iron Man, Thor, The Hulk, and Captain America have to save the world, and it’ll be interesting to see if The Avengers will be one of the movies that saves the 2012 box office from sinking to 2011 levels.

Release Date: May 4, 2012
‘Dark Shadows’
Starring: Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter, and Michelle Pfeiffer

The Buzz: The campy 1960s vampire soap opera makes its way to the big screen courtesy of frequent collaborators and friends, Tim Burton and Johnny Depp. Their last joint project, Alice in Wonderland, was a blockbuster success, but are audiences tired of vampires? If anyone can sell us on the need to watch yet another vampire on the big screen, it’s Johnny Depp.

Release Date: May 11, 2012
‘Snow White and the Huntsman’
Starring: Kristen Stewart, Chris Hemsworth, Charlize Theron, and Sam Claflin

The Plot: If Universal Pictures and Relativity Media were boxers instead of film studios, we’d have told them to take their fight to the ring, with the winner earning the right to release the only Snow White film of 2012. Instead, audiences will be served up two very different takes on the classic fairy tale, with Relativity beating Universal to the punch by releasing its Mirror Mirror in March 2012. However, just because Relativity landed the earlier release date doesn’t mean it’s winning the publicity war. After trailers were released for both films, it was Universal’s darker, more action-oriented film that appeared to win over prospective ticket buyers.

Release Date: June 1, 2012
Starring: Charlize Theron, Michael Fassbender, Noomi Rapace, Patrick Wilson, and Idris Elba

The Buzz: Finally, Ridley Scott returns to the sci-fi genre with a film that, while not an Alien prequel, definitely stems from the same alien DNA. Scott has a lot to prove after taking such a long vacation from the genre, and fans are anxious to see what his very secretive Prometheus project is all about.

Release Date: June 8, 2012
‘Rock of Ages’
Starring: Tom Cruise, Julianne Hough, Diego Boneta, and Russell Brand

The Plot: Are you ready to rock? Tom Cruise channels his inner rock star, Julianne Hough plays the female love interest, and newcomer Diego Boneta takes on a role American Idol’s Constantine Maroulis handled on stage in this film version of the smash Broadway hit musical. Set to the music of ’80s bands Journey, Night Ranger, Styx, REO Speed wagon, Pat Benatar, Twisted Sister, Poison, Asia, and Whitesnake, Rock of Ages could be this year’s guilty pleasure.

Release Date: June 15, 2012
‘Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter’
Starring: Benjamin Walker, Dominic Cooper, Mary Elizabeth Winstead, and Alan Tudyk

The Buzz: Honest Abe wasn’t just a U.S. President, he was apparently an expert vampire hunter (but you probably figured that out from the film’s title, right?). Based on the bestselling book by Seth Grahame-Smith (who also worked on the screenplay), Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter finds the 16th US President committed to killing vampires after his mother is murdered by one. But fans of the book should be prepared for a few changes to the story. Alan Tudyk said in our exclusive interview that the film “does and it doesn’t” stick to the source material.

Says Tudyk, “It’s a lot more active than the book. [With] the book there’s a lot of description and, because of the way the book is, a lot of it is his journal. So, it’s like a history. The book, for me, got a little slow towards the last quarter as Lincoln gets older in his life and he starts to slow down. The book – for me – is more about ideas and not so much about what’s going on. And in the movie it stays at a pace. The action’s more immediate and Abe Lincoln’s involvement in everything is a little more active than it was in the book.”

Release Date: June 22, 2012
‘The Amazing Spider-Man’
Starring: Andrew Garfield, Emma Stone, and Rhys Ifans

The Plot: There’s a Webb (director Marc Webb) in charge of this new take on the comic book character, which is just purely a weird coincidence. However, maybe having the last name Webb means he’s heard a lot of spider comments over the years and feels closer to the source material than non-arachnid-named filmmakers might. Anyway…doing a new Spider-Man without Sam Raimi, Tobey Maguire, and Kirsten Dunst so close to the last film of the franchise is a risky move. Will fans accept the new Spider-Man trio? We shall see.

Release Date: July 3, 2012

‘The Dark Knight Rises’
Starring: Christian Bale, Tom Hardy, Gary Oldman, Anne Hathaway, and Michael Caine

The Buzz: Christopher Nolan and Christian Bale are saying goodbye to the franchise with this third film of their Batman trilogy and, if the trailer’s any indication, Nolan and Bale have upped the ante action-wise with The Dark Knight Rises. But fans did have one major complaint about that first trailer: it’s difficult to understand what Bane (played by Tom Hardy) is saying. Will that be tweaked for the theatrical release? We hope so.

Release Date: July 20, 2012
More on ‘The Dark Knight Rises’
‘The Bourne Legacy’
Starring: Jeremy Renner, Rachel Weisz, Edward Norton, Albert Finney, and Oscar Isaac

The Plot: Matt Damon’s out, Paul Greengrass is gone, but Bourne is returning nonetheless. And although the buzz surrounding this fourth film of the series isn’t nearly as loud as it was prior to the release of each of the previous three films, because it’s a Bourne adventure, there’s an audience eagerly awaiting its release.

Jeremy Renner takes over the lead, playing a character that isn’t Bourne but has Bourne-ish things happen to him.

Contemporary Game

Looking back to the sort of games which our parents use to play differ a hole lot to the type of games we have come to know. The games which most teenagers play nowadays are more advanced and way more technologically oriented.
According to Scott Yoder computer games are undeniably popular among teenagers. Some studies conclude there is a link between playing violent video games and tendencies towards violent behaviour.
Increasingly, the social element to playing computer games affects how teenagers interact with peers. Playing computer games has also been shown to improve problem-solving skills and increase adeptness at using technology overall. But an addictive aspect too many games suggest that playing in moderation is critical.
Computer Games and Violence
• Many studies analyze the effect of violent computer games on teens. For example, a study by the Indiana University School of Medicine produced brain-scan data showing that exposure to violent computer games and other media affects the area of the brain responsible for decision-making and behavior control. Violent computer games may exacerbate tendencies towards violent behavior in some teens, while others are unaffected. Experts and game manufacturers agree that violent games need to be monitored for age appropriateness and should be played in moderation.
Computer Games and Social Life
• For many teens, playing computer games is a major component of their overall social experience. The Internet also allows multiple players to be involved in the same game from remote locations. These games allow players to support one another within the game, and players often make connections outside of the gaming environment. However, these relationships can also have negative effects. The Pew Research study showed teens sometimes experienced hateful, racist and sexist behavior when playing online games.
Computer Skill and Dexterity
• There is evidence that playing computer games helps with eye-hand coordination. Teens that play computer games must learn to use hand controls and steer their way through complex game environments. Also, computer games often initiate exposure to various types of technology that have applications in other areas of life and work.
Computer Game Addiction
• Research shows that computer games can become addictive, which few teens would find surprising. The complex nature and advanced graphics of many computer games make them compelling entertainment. Both gaming experts and parenting support groups agree that for teenagers, computer games should be played in moderation.
The Effects of Computer Games Among Teenagers |

Contemporary Youth Magazine

Seventeen is an American magazine for teenagers. Being the first teen magazine in United States it was mostly for young girls and women between the ages of 12 and 19. This magazine was set up towards inspiring girls to become role models in work and citizenship. Seventeen took a more fashion and romance-oriented approach in presenting their material, while still maintaining their model of promoting self-confidence in young women. It was first published in September 1944 by Walter Annenberg’s Triangle Publications. The magazine is organized into the following sections: fashion, beauty, health, love, and life.
Seventeen Magazine’s Early History
Helen Valentine, Seventeen magazine’s first editor, believed it was necessary for the teenage girl to gain some respect in the real world by providing her with a source that would help her acquire understanding of the ways she could make a name for herself in society. King Features Syndicate began running the comic strip “Teena’” in July 1944, created by cartoonist Hilda Terry, in which the trials and tribulations of a typical teenager’s life were portrayed, and “Teena” ran in newspapers all over the world for 20 years. After Seventeen Magazine was launched in September 1944, Estelle Ellis Rubenstein, the magazine’s promotion director, used “Teena” as a marketing tool to introduce advertisers to the life of teenage girls and to encourage advertisers to buy space in Seventeen. Today, it is equally as evident that the magazine serves a greater purpose as simply being a form of literary entertainment, for it also promotes self-confidence and success in young women.

Past and current stars which have graced the cover of the Seventeen magazine cover areas follow:
• 1950 – Helen Ryan
• 1955 – Dolores Hawkins
• 1965 – Colleen Corby
• 1967 – Twiggy
• 1973 – Robert Redford and Bonnie Lyschir
• 1976 – Dorothy Hamill
• 1988 – Milla Jovovich
• 1990 – Cameron Diaz
• 1993 – Drew Barrymore
• 1995 – Alicia Silverstone
• 1997 – Ivanka Trump
• 1998 – Leonardo DiCaprio
• Apr. 2002 – Kelly Clarkson
• Dec. 2006 – Paris Hilton
• Oct. 2007 – Hilary Duff
• June 2008/May. 2009/Dec. 2010 – Taylor Swift
• July 2008 – Whitney Thompson
• Dec. 2008/Jan. 2009 – Miley Cyrus
• Sep. 2009 – Selena Gomez
• Nov. 2010 – Kristen Stewart
• March 2011 – Miranda Cosgrove
• Apr. 2011 – Victoria Justice
• June. 2011 – Lucy Hale
• Aug. 2011 – Emma Watson
• Sep. 2011 – Ashley Benson
• Oct. 2011 – Taylor Lautner
• Nov. 2011 – Heather Morris
• Dec. 2011/Jan. 2012 – Nikki Reed
• Feb. 2012 – Demi Lovato
• Mar. 2012 – Lily Collins
• Apr. 2012 – Jennifer Lawrence
• May 2012 – Chloë Grace Moretz & Justin Bieber (Double Cover)
• June/July 2012 – Sarah Hyland
• Aug. 2012 – Shay Mitchell
• Sep. 2012 – Kendall Jenner & Kylie Jenner
Some of the notable history events of the Seventeen magazines
Sylvia Plath submitted forty-five pieces to Seventeen before her first short story, “And Summer Will Not Come Again”, was published in the August 1950 issue.[7]
In 2010, writer Jamie Keiles conducted The Seventeen Magazine Project, a social experiment in which she followed the advice of Seventeen magazines for 30 days.
In the early 1980’s, Whitney Houston appeared in Seventeen and became one of the first black women to grace the cover of the magazine.
In 2012, in response to reader protests against the magazine’s altering of Seventeen Magazine model photos, the magazine pledged not to Photoshop model photos published in the magazine.
International editions
• The South African edition of Seventeen magazines is published by 8 Ink Media based in Cape Town. The editor is Khwezi Magwaza.
• The Philippine version is published by Summit Media, but it ceased publication in April 2009.
• The Hispanic American edition is published by Editorial Televisa.
• The Indian edition is published by Apricot Publications Pvt. Ltd in Mumbai.
• The Malaysian version of Seventeen is published by Bluinc.
• The Seventeen Singapore is published by SPH Magazines.
• The Thai edition of Seventeen is published by Media Transasia Limited in Bangkok.
In the United Kingdom there is no Seventeen magazine, but there is a similar magazine recently touted as a fresher and edgier Teen Vogue called Company.
Seventeen in other media
Seventeen has also published books for teens, addressing such topics as beauty, style, college, health, and fitness.
America’s Next Top Model
Seventeen was a sponsor of America’s Next Top Model. The winners of America’s Next Top Model from seasons 7 through 14 have each graced a cover of Seventeen magazine including Caridee English, Jaslene Gonzalez, Saleisha Stowers, Whitney Thompson, McKey Sullivan, Teyona Anderson, Nicole Fox, and Krista White. Originally, the magazine only planned on sponsoring the show from cycles 7-10, however, with such a high success rate and an awesome opportunity the magazine provided for these women, the magazine sponsored the cycles until the show decided to move the winners to Vogue Italia.
In 2011, Seventeen collaborated with ABC Family to make a film about a girl who gets bullied online called Cyberbu//y. The point was to raise awareness of cyber bullying and to “delete digital drama”. The film premiered July 17, 2011 on ABC Family.
Editors which have stood the test of time: from the 1944 Helen Valentine up until the present Editor, Ann Shoket, 2007
• Helen Valentine (1944-1953)
• Enid A. Haupt (1953-1970)
• Midge Richardson
• Caroline Miller
• Mia Fausto Cruz
• Simon Dumenco
• Meredith Berlin
• Sabrina Weill
• Annemarie Iverson
• Atoosa Rubenstein (2003-2007)
• Ann Shoket (2007-Present)
Between the stresses and daily challenges we are face we need some time to kick back and get our game on. From magazines which present us with information about the latest technological advances, we are also present to the world of computer gaming which has become a huge fuzz amongst teenagers especially those computer geeks. Read more about how these games has evolved from the games of ancient times until now.

Surrealism Manifesto

>Surrealism Manifesto

To all the bloggers, in this section I will be discussing the Surrealist Manifesto and what they believed in. But first of all you would certainly need to know what exactly Surrealism is, it is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of association heretofore neglected, in the omnipotence (having unlimited power, able to do anything) of the dream. Within this movement, thought dictated (with total authority) in the absence of all control exerted by reason, and outside all aesthetic or moral preoccupations. It is clear that these artists didn’t care much for the aestheticism of their art, their dreams and imagination were their guidelines and inspiration. Just imagine, creating and surrounding yourself with a world that only you know of and are familiar with.

The first Surrealist Manifesto was written by Andrè Breton in 1924, called Le Manifeste du Surrèalisme.

It was said by Breton that at that time they were still living under the reign of logic, but the logical processes of their time apply only to the solution of problems of secondary interest. The absolute rationalism which remains in fashion allows for the consideration of only those facts narrowly relevant to our experience.
Logical conclusions, on the other hand, escape us. Needless to say, boundaries have been assigned even to experience. It revolves in a cage from which release is becoming increasingly difficult. It too depends upon immediate utility and is guarded by common sense. The surrealists succeeded in dismissing what was wrong and right and they proscribed every way of seeking the truth which does not conform to convention. It would appear that it is by sheer chance that an aspect of intellectual life – and by far the most important in my opinion — about which no one was supposed to be concerned any longer has, recently, been brought back to light. Credit for this must go to Sigmund Freud. On the evidence of his discoveries a current of opinion is at last developing which will enable the explorer of the human mind to extend his investigations, since he will be empowered to deal with more than merely summary realities. Perhaps the imagination is on the verge of recovering its rights. If the depths of our minds conceal strange forces capable of augmenting or conquering those on the surface, it is in our greatest interest to capture them.

It was only fitting that Sigmund should appear with his critique on the dream. In fact, it is incredible that this important part of psychic activity has still attracted so little attention within the limits to which its performance is restricted (or what passes for performance), the dream, according to all outward appearances, is continuous and bears traces of organization. They were concerned with what existed in the dream state, or that it does not sink into the immemorial (for a very long time).
Their conquest was aimed at two separate groups of dream and reality, of which was put into a sort of absolute reality, a surrealism, so to speak. There, the absence of any known restrictions allows him the perspective of several lives lived at once now their interest shifted to the fleeting, the extreme facility of everything. Children set off each day without a worry in the world. A great deal of comfort and consolation from their imagination that they enjoy their madness sufficiently to endure the thought that its validity does not extend beyond themselves.

Once one ceases to feel, you shouldn’t keep quiet. Our brains are dulled by the incurable mania of wanting to make the unknown known, classifiable. The desire for analysis wins out over the sentiments (Barrès, Proust.). The result is statements of undue length whose persuasive power is attributable solely to their strangeness and which impress the viewer/onlooker.
Under the pretense of civilization and progress, they have managed to banish from the mind everything that may rightly or wrongly be termed superstition, or fancy; forbidden is any kind of search for truth which is not in conformance with accepted practices. It was, apparently, by pure chance that a part of our mental world which we pretended not to be concerned with any longer and, in their opinion by far the most important part. For this we must give thanks to the discoveries of Sigmund Freud. On the basis of these discoveries a current of opinion is finally forming by means of which the human explorer will be able to carry his investigation much further, authorized as he will henceforth be not to confine himself solely to the most summary realities. The imagination is perhaps on the point of reasserting itself, of reclaiming its rights. If the depths of our mind contain within it strange forces capable of augmenting those on the surface, or of waging a victorious battle against them, there is every reason to seize them first to seize them, then, if need be, to submit them to the control of our reason.
Thus the dream finds itself reduced to a mere parenthesis, as is the night. And, like the night, dreams generally contribute little to furthering our understanding. This curious state of affairs seems to me to call for certain reflections within the limits where they operate (or are thought to operate) dreams give every evidence of being continuous and show signs of organization. Memory alone arrogates to itself the right to excerpt from dreams, to ignore the transitions, and to depict for us rather a series of dreams than the dream itself.

Not only does the mind display, in this state, a strange tendency to lose its bearings (as evidenced by the slips and mistakes the secrets of which are just beginning to be revealed to us), but, what is more, it does not appear that, when the mind is functioning normally, it really responds to anything but the suggestions which come to it from the depths of that dark night to which I commend it.
The mind of the man who dreams is fully satisfied by what happens to him. The agonizing question of possibility is no longer pertinent. Kill, fly faster, love to your heart’s content. And if you should die, are you not certain of reawaking among the dead? Let yourself be carried along, events will not tolerate your interference. You are nameless. The ease of everything is priceless.
They succeeded in recording the contents of dreams in their entirety (and that presupposes a discipline of memory spanning generations. Their passion for eternity with which they are constantly stirred lends an unforgettable intensity to their torments, and to mine.


Hay there friends, have you written your own manifesto yet? This is just too interesting for words. I can’t wait to write my own manifesto… jeeeezzzz..but anyway.. This time, I will be discussing the Futurist Manifesto by FT Marinetti! It seems like the futurists were pretty upset about something and quite rebellious, but we are going to find out what exactly that was… Pay attention 

The Futurist Manifesto – by F.T. Marinetti, 1909

1. FilippoTommaso Marinetti, author of the Futurist Manifesto.


The Futurist Manifesto, written by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, was published in the Italian newspaper Gazzettadell'Emilia in Bologna on 5 February 1909, then in French as "Manifeste du futurisme" in the newspaper Le Figaro on 20 February 1909. It initiated an artistic philosophy, Futurism, that was a rejection of the past, and a celebration of speed, machinery, violence, youth and industry; it was also an advocation of the modernisation and cultural rejuvenation of Italy (
Futurists insist that literature will not be overtaken by progress; rather, it will absorb progress in its evolution, and will demonstrate that such progress must manifest in this manner because Man will use this progress to sincerely let his instinctive nature explode. Man is reacting against the potentially overwhelming strength of progress, and shouts out his centrality. Man will use speed, not the opposite (


Poetry will help Man to consent his soul be part of all that ,indicating a new concept of beauty that will refer to the human instinct of aggression (
The effect of the manifesto is even more evident in the Italian version. Not one of the words used is casual; if not the precise form, at least the roots of these words recall those more frequently used during the Middle Ages, particularly during the Rinascimento (

2. We have been up all night, my friends and I, beneath mosque lamps whose brass cupolas are bright as our souls, because like them they were illuminated by the internal glow of electric hearts. And trampling underfoot our native sloth on opulent Persian carpets, we have been discussing right up to the limits of logic and scrawling the paper with demented writing (
Our hearts were filled with an immense pride at feeling ourselves standing quite alone, like lighthouses or like the sentinels in an outpost, facing the army of enemy stars encamped in their celestial bivouacs. Alone with the engineers in the infernal stokeholes of great ships, alone with the black spirits which rage in the belly of rogue locomotives, alone with the drunkards beating their wings against the walls (


Then we were suddenly distracted by the rumbling of huge double decker trams that went leaping by, streaked with light like the villages celebrating their festivals, which the Po in flood suddenly knocks down and uproots, and, in the rapids and eddies of a deluge, drags down to the sea (
Then the silence increased. As we listened to the last faint prayer of the old canal and the crumbling of the bones of the moribund palaces with their green growth of beard, suddenly the hungry automobiles roared beneath our windows (


“Come, my friends!” I said. “Let us go! At last Mythology and the mystic cult of the ideal have been left behind. We are going to be present at the birth of the centaur and we shall soon see the first angels fly! We must break down the gates of life to test the bolts and the padlocks! Let us go! Here isthey very first sunrise on earth! Nothing equals the splendor of its red sword which strikes for the first time in our millennial darkness.” (
We went up to the three snorting machines to caress their breasts. I lay along mine like a corpse on its bier, but I suddenly revived again beneath the steering wheel — a guillotine knife — which threatened my stomach. A great sweep of madness brought us sharply back to ourselves and drove us through the streets, steep and deep, like dried up torrents. Here and there unhappy lamps in the windows taught us to despise our mathematical eyes. “Smell,” I exclaimed, “smell is good enough for wild beasts!” (
And we hunted, like young lions, death with its black fur dappled with pale crosses, who ran before us in the vast violet sky, palpable and living (
And yet we had no ideal Mistress stretching her form up to the clouds, nor yet a cruel Queen to whom to offer our corpses twisted into the shape of Byzantine rings! No reason to die unless it is the desire to be rid of the too great weight of our courage! (


We drove on, crushing beneath our burning wheels, like shirt-collars under the iron, the watch dogs on the steps of the houses (
Death, tamed, went in front of me at each corner offering me his hand nicely, and sometimes lay on the ground with a noise of creaking jaws giving me velvet glances from the bottom of puddles (
"Let us leave good sense behind like a hideous husk and let us hurl ourselves, like fruit spiced with pride, into the immense mouth and breast of the world! Let us feed the unknown, not from despair, but simply to enrich the unfathomable reservoirs of the Absurd!" (
As soon as I had said these words, I turned sharply back on my tracks with the mad intoxication of puppies biting their tails, and suddenly there were two cyclists disapproving of me and tottering in front of me like two persuasive but contradictory reasons. Their stupid swaying got in my way. What a bore! Pouah! I stopped short, and in disgust hurled myself — vlan! — head over heels in a ditch (
Oh, maternal ditch, half full of muddy water! A factory gutter! I savored a mouthful of strengthening muck which recalled the black teat of my Sudanese nurse! (


As I raised my body, mud-spattered and smelly, I felt the red hot poker of joy deliciously pierce my heart. A crowd of fishermen and gouty naturalists crowded terrified around this marvel. With patient and tentative care they raised high enormous grappling irons to fish up my car, like a vast shark that had run aground. It rose slowly leaving in the ditch, like scales, its heavy coachwork of good sense and its upholstery of comfort (
We thought it was dead, my good shark, but I woke it with a single caress of its powerful back, and it was revived running as fast as it could on its fins (
Then with my face covered in good factory mud, covered with metal scratches, useless sweat and celestial grime, amidst the complaint of staid fishermen and angry naturalists, we dictated our first will and testament to all the living men on earth (
1. We want to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and rashness.
2. The essential elements of our poetry will be courage, audacity and revolt.
3. Literature has up to now magnified pensive immobility, ecstasy and slumber. We want to exalt movements of aggression, feverish sleeplessness, the double march, the perilous leap, the slap and the blow with the fist.
4. We declare that the splendor of the world has been enriched by a new beauty: the beauty of speed. A racing automobile with its bonnet adorned with great tubes like serpents with explosive breath … a roaring motor car which seems to run on machine-gun fire, is more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace.
5. We want to sing the man at the wheel, the ideal axis of which crosses the earth, itself hurled along its orbit.
6. The poet must spend himself with warmth, glamour and prodigality to increase the enthusiastic fervor of the primordial elements.
7. Beauty exists only in struggle. There is no masterpiece that has not an aggressive character. Poetry must be a violent assault on the forces of the unknown, to force them to bow before man.
8. We are on the extreme promontory of the centuries! What is the use of looking behind at the moment when we must open the mysterious shutters of the impossible? Time and Space died yesterday. We are already living in the absolute, since we have already created eternal, omnipresent speed.
9. We want to glorify war — the only cure for the world — militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of the anarchists, the beautiful ideas which kill, and contempt for woman.
10. We want to demolish museums and libraries, fight morality, feminism and all opportunist and utilitarian cowardice.
11. We will sing of the great crowds agitated by work, pleasure and revolt; the multi-colored and polyphonic surf of revolutions in modern capitals: the nocturnal vibration of the arsenals and the workshops beneath their violent electric moons: the gluttonous railway stations devouring smoking serpents; factories suspended from the clouds by the thread of their smoke; bridges with the leap of gymnasts flung across the diabolic cutlery of sunny rivers: adventurous steamers sniffing the horizon; great-breasted locomotives, puffing on the rails like enormous steel horses with long tubes for bridle, and the gliding flight of aeroplanes whose propeller sounds like the flapping of a flag and the applause of enthusiastic crowds.

It is in Italy that we are issuing this manifesto of ruinous and incendiary violence, by which we today are founding Futurism, because we want to deliver Italy from its gangrene of professors, archaeologists, tourist guides and antiquaries ((
Italy has been too long the great second-hand market. We want to get rid of the innumerable museums which cover it with innumerable cemeteries ((
Museums, cemeteries! Truly identical in their sinister juxtaposition of bodies that do not know each other. Public dormitories where you sleep side by side for ever with beings you hate or do not know. Reciprocal ferocity of the painters and sculptors who murder each other in the same museum with blows of line and color. To make a visit once a year, as one goes to see the graves of our dead once a year, that we could allow! We can even imagine placing flowers once a year at the feet of the Gioconda! But to take our sadness, our fragile courage and our anxiety to the museum every day, that we cannot admit! Do you want to poison yourselves? Do you want to rot? (
What can you find in an old picture except the painful contortions of the artist trying to break uncrossable barriers which obstruct the full expression of his dream? (
To admire an old picture is to pour our sensibility into a funeral urn instead of casting it forward with violent spurts of creation and action. Do you want to waste the best part of your strength in a useless admiration of the past, from which you will emerge exhausted, diminished, trampled on? (
Indeed daily visits to museums, libraries and academies (those cemeteries of wasted effort, calvaries of crucified dreams, registers of false starts!) is for artists what prolonged supervision by the parents is for intelligent young men, drunk with their own talent and ambition (

For the dying, for invalids and for prisoners it may be all right. It is, perhaps, some sort of balm for their wounds, the admirable past, at a moment when the future is denied them. But we will have none of it, we, the young, strong and living Futurists! (
Let the good incendiaries with charred fingers come! Here they are! Heap up the fire to the shelves of the libraries! Divert the canals to flood the cellars of the museums! Let the glorious canvases swim ashore! Take the picks and hammers! Undermine the foundation of venerable towns! (
The oldest among us are not yet thirty years old: we have therefore at least ten years to accomplish our task. When we are forty let younger and stronger men than we throw us in the waste paper basket like useless manuscripts! They will come against us from afar, leaping on the light cadence of their first poems, clutching the air with their predatory fingers and sniffing at the gates of the academies the good scent of our decaying spirits, already promised to the catacombs of the libraries (
But we shall not be there. They will find us at last one winter’s night in the depths of the country in a sad hangar echoing with the notes of the monotonous rain, crouched near our trembling aeroplanes, warming our hands at the wretched fire which our books of today will make when they flame gaily beneath the glittering flight of their pictures (
They will crowd around us, panting with anguish and disappointment, and exasperated by our proud indefatigable courage, will hurl themselves forward to kill us, with all the more hatred as their hearts will be drunk with love and admiration for us. And strong healthy Injustice will shine radiantly from their eyes. For art can only be violence, cruelty, injustice (

The oldest among us are not yet thirty, and yet we have already wasted treasures, treasures of strength, love, courage and keen will, hastily, deliriously, without thinking, with all our might, till we are out of breath (
Look at us! We are not out of breath, our hearts are not in the least tired. For they are nourished by fire, hatred and speed! Does this surprise you? it is because you do not even remember being alive! Standing on the world’s summit, we launch once more our challenge to the stars! (
Your objections? All right! I know them! Of course! We know just what our beautiful false intelligence affirms: “We are only the sum and the prolongation of our ancestors,” it says. Perhaps! All right! What does it matter? But we will not listen! Take care not to repeat those infamous words! Instead, lift up your head! (
Standing on the world’s summit we launch once again our insolent challenge to the stars! (

Wow, these oaks were serious about their manifesto (freaks)..(joking).. To the futurist, speed was beautiful and they established courageous movement of aggression and danger. They wanted to destroy museums and libraries as they were not concerned about the past. Their goal was to glorify war and they believed that beauty only existed in struggle. They were brave!! Something I would find difficult to do, is to demolish a museum/library, imagine that!!! NO! NEVER!! The Futurist stood up for what they believed in, and I admire that… Imagine yourself in their shoes, that struggle, to prove a point… It is a manifesto, a good one indeed. But what the fudge, I enjoyed this interesting rebellious research, hope u did too….We will talk later, alligator…lol


The interesting thing about manifesto’s

To me being an individual believing in my own mind set of things is pretty insane but imagine being part of a group where many people believe in the same things for example rules, regulation, goal sets and dreams. Art manifesto’s was written by a group of people that believed in a certain art movement. Manifesto’s is actually quite interesting. I would love to write my own manifesto sometime but first we will have a look at manifestos that already exists for a long time.

Suprematism Manifesto

Under Suprematism I understand the supremacy of pure feeling in creative art. To the Suprematist the visual phenomena of the objective world are, in themselves, meaningless; the significant thing is feeling, as such, quite apart from the environment in which it is called forth.
The so called “materialization” of a feeling in the conscious mind really means a materialization of the reflection of that feeling through the medium of some realistic conception. Such a realistic conception is without value in Suprematist art… And not only in Suprematist art but in art generally, because the enduring, true value of a work of art (to whatever school it may belong) resides solely in the feeling expressed.
Academic naturalism, the naturalism of the Impressionists, Cezanneism, Cubism, etc all these, in a way, are nothing more than dialectic methods which, as such, in no sense determine the true value of an art work.
An objective representation, having objectivity as its aim, is something which, as such, has nothing to do with art, and yet the use of objective forms in an art work does not preclude the possibility of its being of high artistic value.
Hence, to the Suprematist, the appropriate means of representation is always the one which gives fullest possible expression to feeling as such and which ignores the familiar appearance of objects.
Objectivity, in itself, is meaningless to him; the concepts of the conscious mind are worthless.
Feeling is the determining factor… and thus art arrives at non objective representation at Suprematism.
It reaches a “desert” in which nothing can be perceived but feeling.
Everything which determined the objective ideal structure of life and of “art’ ideas, concepts, and images all this the artist has cast aside in order to heed pure feeling.
The art of the past which stood, at least ostensibly, in the service of religion and the state, will take on new life in the pure (unapplied) art of Suprematism, which will build up a new world the world of feeling…


When, in the year 1913, in my desperate attempt to free art from the ballast of objectivity, I took refuge in the square form and exhibited a picture which consisted of nothing more than a black square on a white field, the critics and, along with them, the public sighed, "Everything which we loved is lost. We are in a desert… Before us is nothing but a black square on a white background!"
"Withering" words were sought to drive off the symbol of the "desert" so that one might behold on the "dead square" the beloved likeness of "reality" ("true objectivity" and a spiritual feeling).
The square seemed incomprehensible and dangerous to the critics and the public… and this, of course, was to be expected.
The ascent to the heights of nonobjective art is arduous and painful… but it is nevertheless rewarding. The familiar recedes ever further and further into the background… The contours of the objective world fade more and more and so it goes, step by step, until finally the world "everything we loved and by which we have lived" becomes lost to sight.
No more "likenesses of reality," no idealistic images nothing but a desert!
But this desert is filled with the spirit of nonobjective sensation which pervades everything.
Even I was gripped by a kind of timidity bordering on fear when it came to leaving "the world of will and idea," in which I had lived and worked and in the reality of which I had believed.
But a blissful sense of liberating nonobjectivity drew me forth into the "desert," where nothing is real except feeling… and so feeling became the substance of my life.
This was no "empty square" which I had exhibited but rather the feeling of nonobjectivity.
I realized that the "thing" and the "concept" were substituted for feeling and understood the falsity of the world of will and idea.
Is a milk bottle, then, the symbol of milk?
Suprematism is the rediscovery of pure art which, in the course of time, had become obscured by the accumulation of "things."

It appears to me that, for the critics and the public, the painting of Raphael, Rubens, Rembrandt, etc., has become nothing more than a conglomeration of countless “things,” which conceal its true value the feeling which gave rise to it. The virtuosity of the objective representation is the only thing admired.
If it were possible to extract from the works of the great masters the feeling expressed in them the actual artistic value, that is and to hide this away, the public, along with the critics and the art scholars, would never even miss it.
So it is not at all strange that my square seemed empty to the public.
If one insists on judging an art work on the basis of the virtuosity of the objective representation the verisimilitude of the illusion and thinks he sees in the objective representation itself a symbol of the inducing emotion, he will never partake of the gladdening content of a work of art.
The general public is still convinced today that art is bound to perish if it gives up the imitation of “dearly loved reality” and so it observes with dismay how the hated element of pure feeling abstraction makes more and more headway…
Art no longer cares to serve the state and religion, it no longer wishes to illustrate the history of manners, it wants to have nothing further to do with the object, as such, and believes that it can exist, in and for itself, without “things” (that is, the “time tested well spring of life”).
But the nature and meaning of artistic creation continue to be misunderstood, as does the nature of creative work in general, because feeling, after all, is always and everywhere the one and only source of every creation.
The emotions which are kindled in the human being are stronger than the human being himself… they must at all costs find an outlet they must take on overt form they must be communicated or put to work.
It was nothing other than a yearning for speed… for flight… which, seeking an outward shape, brought about the birth of the airplane. For the airplane was not contrived in order to carry business letters from Berlin to Moscow, but rather in obedience to the irresistible drive of this yearning for speed to take on external form.
The “hungry stomach” and the intellect which serves this must always have the last word, of course, when it comes to determining the origin and purpose of existing values… but that is a subject in itself.

And the state of affairs is exactly the same in art as in creative technology… In painting (I mean here, naturally, the accepted “artistic” painting) one can discover behind a technically correct portrait of Mr. Miller or an ingenious representation of the flower girl at PotsdamerPlatz not a trace of the true essence of art no evidence whatever of feeling. Painting is the dictatorship of a method of representation, the purpose of which is to depict Mr. Miller, his environment, and his ideas.
The black square on the white field was the first form in which nonobjective feeling came to be expressed. The square = feeling, the white field = the void beyond this feeling.
Yet the general public saw in the nonobjectivity of the representation the demise of art and failed to grasp the evident fact that feeling had here assumed external form.
The Suprematist square and the forms proceeding out of it can be likened to the primitive marks (symbols) of aboriginal man which represented, in their combinations, not ornament but a feeling of rhythm.
Suprematism did not bring into being a new world of feeling but, rather, an altogether new and direct form of representation of the world of feeling.
The square changes and creates new forms, the elements of which can be classified in one way or another depending upon the feeling which gave rise to them.
When we examine an antique column, we are no longer interested in the fitness of its construction to perform its technical task in the building but recognize in it the material expression of a pure feeling. We no longer see in it a structural necessity but view it as a work of art in its own right.
“Practical life,” like a homeless vagabond, forces its way into every artistic form and believes itself to be the genesis and reason for existence of this form. But the vagabond doesn’t tarry long in one place and once he is gone (when to make an art work serve “practical purposes” no longer seems practical) the work recovers its full value.
Antique works of art are kept in museums and carefully guarded, not to preserve them for practical use but in order that their eternal artistry may be enjoyed.
The difference between the new, nonobjective (“useless”) art and the art of the past lies in the fact that the full artistic value of the latter comes to light (becomes recognized) only after life, in search of some new expedient, has forsaken it, whereas the unapplied artistic element of the new art outstrips life and shuts the door on “practical utility.”
And so there the new nonobjective art stands the expression of pure feeling, seeking no practical values, no ideas, no promised land…
The Suprematists have deliberately given up objective representation of their surroundings in order to reach the summit of the true “unmasked” art and from this vantage point to view life through the prism of pure artistic feeling.
Nothing in the objective world is as “secure and unshakeable” as it appears to our conscious minds. We should accept nothing as predetermined as constituted for eternity. Every “firmly established,” familiar thing can be shifted about and brought under a new and, primarily, unfamiliar order. Why then should it not be possible to bring about an artistic order?…
Our life is a theater piece, in which nonobjective feeling is portrayed by objective imagery.
A bishop is nothing but an actor who seeks with words and gestures, on an appropriately “dressed” stage, to convey a religious feeling, or rather the reflection of a feeling in religious form. The office clerk, the blacksmith, the soldier, the accountant, the general… these are all characters out of one stage play or another, portrayed by various people, who become so carried away that they confuse the play and their parts in it with life itself We almost never get to see the actual human face and if we ask someone who he is, he answers, “an engineer,” “a farmer,” etc., or, in other words, he gives the title of the role played by him in one or another effective drama.
The title of the role is also set down next to his full name, and certified in his passport, thus removing any doubt concerning the surprising fact that the owner of the passport is the engineer Ivan and not the painter Kasimir.
In the last analysis, what each individual knows about himself is precious little, because the “actual human face” cannot be discerned behind the mask, which is mistaken for the “actual face.”
The philosophy of Suprematism has every reason to view both the mask and the “actual face” with skepticism, since it disputes the reality of human faces (human forms) altogether.

Artists have always been partial to the use of the human face in their representations, for they have seen in it (the versatile, mobile, expressive mimic) the best vehicle with which to convey their feelings. The Suprematists have nevertheless abandoned the representation of the human face (and of natural objects in general) and have found new symbols with which to render direct feelings (rather than externalized reflections of feelings), for the Suprematist does not observe and does not touch – he feels.
We have seen how art, at the turn of the century, divested itself of the ballast of religious and political ideas which had been imposed upon it and came into its own attained, that is, the form suited to its intrinsic nature and became, along with the two already mentioned, a third independent and equally valid point of view.” The public is still, indeed, as much convinced as ever that the artist creates superfluous, impractical things. it never considers that these superfluous things endure and retain their vitality for thousands of years, whereas necessary, practical things survive only briefly.
It does not dawn on the public that it fails to recognize the real, true value of things. This is also the reason for the chronic failure of everything utilitarian. A true, absolute order in human society could only be achieved if mankind were willing to base this order on lasting values. Obviously, then, the artistic factor would have to be accepted in every respect as the decisive one. As long as this is not the case, the uncertainty of a “provisional order” will obtain, instead of the longed for tranquillity of an absolute order, because the provisional order is gauged by current utilitarian understanding and this measuring stick is variable in the highest degree.
In the light of this, all art works which, at present, are a part of “practical life” or to which practical life has laid claim, are in some senses devaluated. Only when they are freed from the encumbrance of practical utility (that is, when they are placed in museums) will their truly artistic, absolute value be recognized.
The sensations of sitting, standing, or running are, first and foremost, plastic sensations and they are responsible for the development of corresponding 61 objects of use and largely determine their form.
A chair, bed, and table are not matters of utility but rather, the forms taken by plastic sensations, so the generally held view that all objects of daily use result from practical considerations is based upon false premises.
We have ample opportunity to become convinced that we are never in a position for recognizing any real utility in things and that we shall never succeed in constructing a really practical object. We can evidently only feel the essence of absolute utility but, since a feeling is always nonobjective, any attempt to grasp the utility of the objective is Utopian. The endeavor to confine feeling within concepts of the conscious mind or, indeed, to replace it with conscious concepts and to give it concrete, utilitarian form, has resulted in the development of all those useless, “practical things” which become ridiculous in no time at all.
It cannot be stressed to often that absolute, true values arise only from artistic, subconscious, or superconscious creation.

Meaning of Manifesto’s

Helloooo there! Again… hope u guys were busy filling those creative minds with the history of art!! It is absolutely amazing, don’t you think? This time we will be discussing the meaning of a manifesto….exciting;)))) I know it is weird and unfamiliar to you guys, but hey we are good teachers, lol… enjoy*

The meaning of a manifesto:

1. a written statement declaring publicly the intentions, motives, or views of its issuer (

2. a public declaration of intentions, opinions, objectives, or motives, as one issued by a government, sovereign, or organization (!:_A_Remix_Manifesto

3. A manifesto is a written public declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government.[1][2][3] It often is political in nature, but may present an individual’s life stance(

4. Manifesto is derived from the Italian word manifesto, itself derived from the Latinmanifestum, meaning clear or conspicuous (

5. A manifesto is a paper written to explain what you’re all about – and why you believe that way. Or perhaps what your plan or intentions are. If you developed a purpose and direction statement for your life, it would be a manifesto (

Well, there u go!! Now I know I can write a million of manifestos, cause of all the things that is bothering me!! If only anyone could see them, but I would never go public off course! It is just a way of proving myself to myself, if u know what I mean. You should try it some time, and those of you who will dare to go public, I will be there behind your back.. I’m serious, let me know!! We can start a revolution* that would be sooocoollll!!!! Yay me!

The Atom Bomb and how it Affected People

What exactly is an Atom Bomb….

The atom bomb is also called a nuclear weapon and the A-Bomb for short. It is a much more powerful device than any conventional bomb containing chemical explosives. Within this bomb is an explosive device in which a large amount of energy is released through nuclear reactions.

This bomb creates a devastating explosive force by the splitting of atoms’ nuclei through a process known as nuclear fission. Now, as not many of us know, nuclear weapons are divided into two types. Namely the fission weapon and the fusion weapon.

Most weapons are fission devices, and they use uranium or plutonium as the fissile fuel. Fusion weapons, which are also called ‘hydrogen bomb’, use a conventional fission bomb to initiate a fusion reaction. This causes a bigger yield when the weapon/bomb detonates.

Images of the ATOM BOMB and the DAMAGE it CREATES

The History of The Atom Bomb

Just before World War 2 started, Albert Einstein wrote a letter to the President, Franklin D. Roosevelt concerning the efforts of Nazi Germany to purify uranium-235 which is used to build an atomic bomb. Einstein wasn’t the only one to inform Roosevelt about this, several other scientist told him the same thing.

It was then when the first atomic bomb was built in Los Alamos during World War 2. This program was called the Manhattan Project with the code-name ‘The Gadget’ during its development. During the period of 1939-1945 (six years) more than 2 billion dollars were spent on this project. Some of the greatest minds of our time was working on the formulas for refining uranium and putting together a working bomb, which includes J. Robert Oppenheimer.

July 16th, 1945, was the day this project was first tested to see either if it will be a success or a failure. The moment the bomb was detonated is explained as follow: in a white blaze that stretched from the basin of the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico to the still-dark skies, The Gadget ushered in the Atomic Age. The light of the explosion then turned orange as the atomic fireball began shooting upwards at 360 feet per second, reddening and pulsing as it cooled. The characteristic mushroom cloud of radioactive vapor materialized at 30,000 feet. Beneath the cloud, all that remained of the soil at the blast site were fragments of jade green radioactive glass, all of this caused by the heat of the reaction.

It is also said by Mary Bellis, who wrote the article “History of the Atomic Bomb and the Manhattan Project” that a blind girl saw the flash 120 miles away.

Only twice have these atomic bombs been used. The first one was nicknamed “Little Boy” and on August 6th, 1945 it was dropped on Hiroshima. This killed 66 000 people in an instant while injuring 69 000 people.

“Fat Man” was the second one that was dropped over the city Nagasaki. This bomb leveled nearly half the city. With this bomb 39 000 were killed and 25 000 injured.

After the bomb hit Hiroshima

After the bomb hit Nagasaki

How People are Affected by Atomic Warfare

As if the explosion itself isn’t deadly enough, the destructive ability of this explosion doesn’t stop there. Other hazards are created by these atomic fallout’s. The rain that follows any atomic detonation is laden with radioactive particles. Even though some people were hundreds of miles away from the actual scene of the bombing, the radiation from the bomb caused mutation to the cells of people and caused severe damage to their health.

Cancer became a common disease for the Japanese after the atomic bomb hit. Not only did diseases start to effect these peoples lives, but also psychologically. Many of the survivors developed PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), these survivors were afraid of loud noises and bright lights. Because of this, many of them struggled to live a normal life.

Some of the other injuries that the people sustained from the blast, and the radiation effects are loss of hair, severe diarrhea, general fatigue, amnesia, lack of concentration, nausea, flash burns, cataracts and malignant tumors. Then there is cancer, especially lymphoma and leukemia, which is one of the greatest of afflictions that are passed on to offspring of survivors. Some of the after affects on the people and children that are born after that: mental retardation, small brain size, lower IQ, delayed development, blindness, spinal bifida and cleft palate.

The babies that were born after the bomb hit were born with undesirable fates, some of them were mutants, some developed life threatening genetic diseases as they grew older.

Because of these atomic detonations, it will affect the future generations of those who live through it. The stories that survivors have to tell are powerful and the images that they saw should never have to be seen by anyone else.

Images of people affected by Atomic Warfare and Experimentation

Images of the after affects of Atomic Bombs (Radioactive Particles)

Anti-Nuke Posters & Campaigns from Different Countries

These posters and campaigns are used to oppose the use of nuclear technologies. Major anti-nuclear groups include Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, and the Nuclear Information and Resource Service. There have been many large anti-nuclear demonstrations and protests throughout the world.